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Ice Diving Expeditions to the Antarctic Peninsula & South Georgia

Diving in Cape Horn, Falklands & Tierra Del Fuego

Victory Adventures Diving Expeditions have destinations, where nature and its wildlife are unique and where tourism is limited. The thorough knowledge of Antarctica has enabled us to develop voyages which combine nature cruises with diving expeditions. The ice diving cruises are still expeditions, but are now more structured, offering you the best dive sites in a fascinating and icy world.

During the voyages, experienced dry suit and wet suit divers have the opportunity to explore the wildlife from below the surface.
However, it will be unwise to focus exclusively on diving. During the trip, you can participate at any time in our thrilling land excursions and zodiac cruises. This combination characterizes the uniqueness of the voyages. It will certainly be the ultimate experience!

The dives vary from shallow ice diving, where the diving is near or under the ice floes (approximately. 30 feet) to shore diving to approximately 30 to 60 feet. The combination of sunlight, sea water and the often extraordinary formations of ice gives a variety of shades and brilliance. While snorkeling or diving along the ice floes, you will be astounded by these deep blue colors. 

Diving in Antarctica does not only offer ice, but also an interesting marine life, such as kelp walls, sea snails, crabs, sea butterflies, various Antarctic fish, ice fish, shrubby horsetails, jelly fish, sea hedgehogs and starfish. In Antarctica you can dive with seals and penguins. When they are within close proximity of the zodiacs, you can snorkel and try to observe these animals from under the surface!

Antarctic Ice Fish

During Antarctic dive expeditions you may observe penguins from under the surface as well as sea lions and perhaps even leopard seals.
The Falkland islands waters are rich in krill, which is consumed by many species, and therefore acts as a natural bait for many forms of marine life. Also we have diving open in South

Please note that the itineraries Antarctica is always weather and ice permitting. It is always possible that because of the pack ice or drift ice the trip has to change its sailing schedule, and that certain bays or fjords are closed because of ice. These diving voyages are true expeditions.

Although Victory Adventure Expeditions know the destinations in detail, each dive will be a surprising event. Ice is not static but always in movement. This means that the colors and marine wildlife under the surface always depend on the conditions and formations of the ice. 

Victory Adventures Diving Expeditions
are glad to be offering this extraordinary experience. Although we have a well planned itinerary, it is likely that the final
destinations will be different than expected. If you are used to fixed itineraries and definite destinations this may not be the voyage for you. Moving ice may cause us to end up hundreds of miles from our intended dive sites. But we can promise you an exciting adventure that breaks new ground.

Fascinating experiences in the world of ice, glaciers, gigantic icebergs and spectacular ice walls which characterize a scuba diving voyage to Antarctica.

Seals, Whales and colonies of thousands of penguins will almost overwhelm you. No two days are alike with surprises and unforgettable experiences await you.

During this voyage, we hope that divers will have at least one dive per day while we are around the Antarctic coastline, so there'll be plenty of time to join the rest of our group for other activities.

We expect the dives to vary from shallow ice diving, where we dive along ice-floes or under small sheets of ice (approximately 30 ft) to shore diving, where we dive to approximately 30 to 60 feet. The combination of sunlight, seawater and the often extraordinary formations of ice, create an overwhelming, ever changing color spectrum, with a fantastic variety of shades and brilliance. Snorkeling or diving along ice-floes is truly inspiring; you will never forget the indescribably beautiful colors.

The Antarctica Peninsula has a fascinating variety of marine life, such as sea-snails, crabs, sea butterflies, fish, jelly-fish, sponges and starfish. We also hope to meet the Seals and Penguins underwater and maybe even whales!

Divers must have advanced qualifications such as experience with deep diving, night diving and underwater navigation.

You will need to
bring the following equipment:

Dry suit or wet suit
2 sets of thermal underwear
Dry gloves or extra under gloves
2 pairs of mitts
2 separate (freeze protected if possible) regulators,
as we will have special tanks with two separate outlets (H or Y).
Submersible pressure gauge
Jacket-style BCD with low-pressure inflator
Depth gauge, watch and compass
Knife Snorkel, fins and 2 masks
Quick release weight belt or weight retaining
system with two release buckles
Dive tables

On board you will have your own compressor and a sufficient number of tanks.

The following items are also recommended: Clothing for cold protection at the surface. Sunglasses and Hat Wind-proof outer jacket and pants

Long Underwear Since the first layer is next to the skin, it should consist of materials which will not hold moisture to the body. Wool, Polypropylene or silk is recommended.
You need to keep out wind and precipitation away with an outer Layer. Breathable fabrics are good as they allow the passage of body moisture.

Neoprene dry suits or wet suits. 6 mm thick neoprene mittens or dry gloves are preferable, as the hands are very susceptible to freezing. It's a good idea to put Vaseline on exposed skin before entering the water.

Freezing or free flowing regulators are the most common technical difficulties faced by ice divers. For that reason we recommend divers bring two regulators, each having freeze-protected first and second stages. The tanks that are supplied are fitted with "Y" valves so that if one regulator free flow you can continue to breathe with the second one.

We recommend using a standard mask and regulator. You can use a full face mask if you prefer but keep an extra face mask handy in case your regulator free flows.
You will practice handling free flowing regulators during the check-out dive. As we will not have access to a decompression chamber, maximum dive depth is 60 ft. It's extremely important to stick to the dive plan. It is very important to follow the dive guide's safety rules.

Ice diving in Antarctica is no more dangerous than normal SCUBA diving so long as you stick to one important rule: Safety First. Divers who are looking for thrills are asked to stay at home! You are asked to remain with the group at all times. Safety is First.

We will start off with a check-out dive so divers can acclimatize to the cold water and to the special Antarctic conditions. Note that ice isn't static but is always in motion. This means that actual underwater situation varies according to formations & ice conditions.  

Warning: These voyages are not for beginners. You will have to be an experienced diver (advanced) and must be familiar with ice diving (at least 30 dives).You will have to show an internationally accepted diving certificate, diver's log book and a statement of your doctor (not older than two years) stating that you are physically healthy to practice scuba diving. 

Ice diving aboard SANTA MARIA AUSTRALIS in Antarctica

Visibility can be excellent under the ice, over other times of year, due to good light penetration and lack of wind and water movement, allowing particulates to settle and remain undisturbed. Directly under the ice surface, sometimes called the "crystal ceiling" is an awesome sight. It?s usually smooth and the ice may be transparent enough to see fairly well through it if there is no snow cover on top.

The first time I heard and felt the ice cracking all around me it was kind of eerie. It's not dangerous. There is pressure buildup in the ice surface as it is forming and the stress is relieved periodically through cracking. It produces a cracking sound and sometimes kind of a "bonging" sound like a tympani drum would make and it's way cool!

There is a certain camaraderie while you are ice diving that also makes it special. It is something literally impossible to do on your own. Ice diving requires cooperation and teamwork from an entire group of people. And it is equipment intensive. Ice diving is really more of an excursion than just a casual recreational dive.

Extra layers of underwear in your dry suit can make it a little harder to do even the simple things by yourself like putting on your fins and your hood and gloves. Your buddies help you don your gear.

Your face and mouth does get a little cold, but that goes away quickly as you acclimate to the water temperature.

Ice diving and doing it safely sounds like a lot of work, and it is. But the experience of plunging in and swimming around under the ice is really a thrill!

If you can get your regulator (first stage) environmentalized if possible, for cold water, 32 degrees, it will tend to work better and not free flow.

Special gear: Clothing:
Being in the water is fun, standing outside taking your turn topside , can get a bit cool. Need to bring warm clothing and a good pair of warm waterproof boots to do all the preliminary work. A change of dry clothes. Several pairs of warm gloves and pants. Rain slickers or rain pants work great. Warm hats, skull cap like.

Special gear: Dry suits. Dry suits work best, but divers with wet suits do this too. Any dry suit will work fine, you may want to bring something to wear under it for added insulation while standing topside.

Undergarments: you will want to have an extra pair of wool socks or some heavier undergarments on. We've had a number of divers with a dry suit and they have reported being perfectly warm. The extremities (hands, feet, nose) tend to get the coldest.

Sun and Burn: The main thing to remember is that after you spend your time under the ice, you're going to be standing around on the ice for a while. Sunglasses and sunscreen are critical; if it is a bright day, we will all get sunburnt from the neck up! Bring attire appropriate for a cold winter day outside. What is the approximate temperature of the water you're diving in?

The particulate matter in the locean during the winter freeze up tends to fall to the bottom, and the water tends to become very clear.

We go down in buddy pairs. One of the interesting things under the ice is the ice water interface. The ice adjacent to the water tends to remind one of a large ice cube, with bubbles trapped in the ice. For fun we invert ourselves, standing upside down with our fins on the bottom of the ice.

How long does an actual dive last for? For purposes of instruction, we like to stay down 20 minutes, but due to cold it is usually less than that. The dry suits are sometimes a bit chilly. With a Viking dry suit and undergarment some stay down for 40 minutes or so.

Except for comfort during changing a dry suit is really not required and a 7mm wetsuit is sufficient. A hood and three fingered mitts are also needed to remain comfortable. Other items needed are ropes, harnesses, carabiners.

More people are also required for ice diving than other scuba diving activities. One person should be safety diver (suited up and ready to go). Two people can be down under the ice. Everyone can rotate through so that all get to experience one of the best parts of diving. An extra air cylinder needs to be on hand because you will need to have a safety diver ready to go even on the last dive of the day.

Antarctic regulators are not a required item but special precautions need to be taken when entering the water as a regulator will freeze up and free-flow if it is used above water in sub-zero temperatures. It is important to put your head under the water then place the regulator in your mouth.

Dry Suit Dive Training

Option 1:
Practical course on dry suit and lessons in Ushuaia, Argentina, going 3 times on dives nearby in motor launch including equipment US$300/person.

Rent of equipment for 3 weeks:

80cf / 3,000psi al. air tank, K valve $40

5mm Neoprene dry suit $210

regulator w/octopus, tank pressure gauge and depth gauge $120

Bouyancy Compensator $60

weight belt 35lb $30

5mm, 3 finger Gloves $10

5mm Hood $10

This requires a guarantee deposit of 4 times the rental cost.

Option 2: Learn the most advanced Dry Suit Techniques from the professionals at Don Stevens's Atlantic AquaSports, Rye, New Hampshire.

Training will take place in the North Atlantic,The Gulf of Maine.

This training program will give divers the confidence, and prepare them for the opportunity to participate in diving programs to: Antarctica, South Georgia Island, The Beagle Channel, The Outer Hebrides, Alaska, British Columbia, and The Falkland Islands.

During training all participants will stay in the Sea Port City of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, in the most beautiful Sise Inn.

Your stay in this part of the United States will be a joy.

Contact us for more information.

Atlantic Aquasports

Cold Water Diving Techniques Class Outline

6 Hours of Class Room Training ­p; 3 2-Hour Sessions
1: General Diving Principals (Cold Water Emphasis)
2: Heat Loss ­p; Retarding the Heat Loss Dry Suit Theory
3: Equipment Requirements for Extreme Temperature

6 Hours of Confined Water Training
1: General Diving Skills
2: Dry Suit Introduction
3: Full Face and Dry Suit Skills

6 Hours of Open Water Dry Suit Training
3 Open Water Dives (minimum) from:
A: Shore
B: Dock
C: Boat

In the contract we would guarantee a minimum competency level, regardless of the number of dives.

Equipment Requirements for Cold Water Diving:

Poseidon Unisuit
Cressi Full Face Mask
Undersuit Scubapro XL Jet Fins
Poseidon CS 5000 Regulator
Dry Mitts
Pressure Gauge
Standard Backpack
Weight Belt

Training includes use of all equipment.
All Cold Water Diving Equipment may be purchased at a total cost of $2,600.

For the Cruise ship diving expeditions, the following applies:


Antarctica and the Sub-Antarctic Islands are some of the last truly unspoilt regions of the world. The mysterious White Continent, with its multi-colored ice caps, glistening glaciers and towering snow-capped mountains, offers unparalleled scenery and photographic opportunities. Enormous numbers of penguins, whales, seals and seabirds congregate in the food-rich waters along the Antarctic and sub-Antarctic shores. The future of Antarctica is crucial to the climate and ecology of the world and on most of our cruises we have an opportunity to visit one of the many scientific bases.

Land excursions:
On board, there are five zodiacs with strong out-board motors, ensuring comfortable zodiac cruises (approaching beautiful fjords and the pack-ice) and safe shore landings. We usually organize one morning excursion and one tour after lunch. The duration of the excursions may vary, but they normally take 3 to 4 hours. On land, it is very important to follow the guidelines of the tour leaders. It is not allowed to leave the group (in the Arctic we must take the Polar Bear danger very seriously, it can show up everywhere and attack without any warning!), touch, remove and, or take plants, stones, feathers etc. Disturbing the animals is naturally forbidden.
Please be aware of the fact that some birds nest on the ground. Be careful where you walk, do not approach the nests. Be aware of the fact, that when such a bird's nest is disturbed, it's extremely vulnerable. Glaucous gulls, Skuas and Arctic foxes are quick to grab the opportunity to feast upon unprotected eggs or chicks.

Expedition Staff
Our expedition team consists of one expedition leader and two guides / lecturers and dive guides. All members of the team are experienced and worked with us for many years. Every morning after breakfast the passengers will be informed about the day's program (position of the vessel, general information regarding the area, itinerary and the expected wildlife during the excursions). The excursions will be evaluated in the afternoon and after dinner. Occasionally, the expedition team will organize lectures, sometimes supported with slide shows to inform the passengers about various interesting features of the Arctic and the Antarctic.

The voyages in Spitsbergen are organized in the northern summertime, so it is not really cold. During this period, the sun shines 24 hours a day. Temperatures are between 0 and 6 Celsius.
The same temperatures can be expected in the Antarctic, where we sail during the southern summer. Although temperatures in the Falklands can be around +15° Celsius, temperatures on the Antarctic Peninsula will drop to +6 to - 2° Celsius.

You can find more detailed information in the Expedition Manual, which will be sent to you after your booking is confirmed.

Our thorough knowledge of the Polar areas enabled us to develop voyages combining nature cruises with diving expeditions, offering you the best dive sites in a fascinating world of ice. These polar diving cruises are still true expedition style.

Do I have to be an experienced diver?
These voyages are not for beginners, you'll have to be a very experienced diver and must be familiar with cold water diving and dry suit diving (at least 20 dives). Before departure you will have to show an internationally accepted diving certificate, diver's logbook and insurance policy.
The first dive of the trip will be a 'check' dive to try out your gear and weights and for our dive master to see if all individual divers have enough experience to dive in the Antarctic waters.

If our dive master feels that the diver does not meet the necessary experience, he can decide to exclude the diver from the dive program (this decision will be made for your own safety). We cannot be held (financially) responsible and does not grant any claims. All divers are required to follow the instructions of the dive master and guides at all times. All participants are diving 100% at their own risk, which is also the case while on land during the excursions.

A combination of nature and diving!

During the voyages, experienced dry suit divers have the opportunity to explore the wildlife from below the surface. Diving in Antarctica and the Arctic is fascinating indeed. However, the topside is as exciting. During the trip, with the prior approval of your expedition leader, you can choose to participate at any time in our thrilling land excursions and zodiac cruises instead of diving. This combination characterizes the uniqueness of our voyages. It will certainly be the ultimate experience for you!


What will you see while diving?

The dive sites will vary from shallow ice diving, diving along a wall, from a beach or from the zodiac. The maximum depth is around 20 meters / 60 feet. The combination of sunlight and the often-extraordinary formations of ice cause an overwhelming, ever-changing specter of colors, with a fantastic variety of shades and brilliance. While snorkelling or diving along the ice floes, you will be amazed and never forget these deep blue colors. In the Antarctic and Arctic waters we may observe typical marine life such as sea squirts, squat lobsters, many species of starfish, spider crabs, soft corals, anemones, peacock worms, and dogfish. Diving in the Polar areas does not only offer ice, but also an interesting marine life, such as kelp walls, sea-snails, crabs, sea butterflies, various Arctic fish, shrubby horse-tails, jelly-fishes, sea-hedgehogs and starfishes. In Spitsbergen we may dive with seals. Near the Island Moffen (Spitsbergen) we may observe many walruses approaching the zodiacs. When they are within close proximity of the zodiacs, we may even try to observe these animals from under the surface with your snorkel and mask. Because of the possible danger we will not dive with the walruses.

Diving in Antarctica does not only offer ice, but also an interesting marine life, such as kelp walls, sea-snails, crabs, sea butterflies, various Antarctic fish, shrubby horse-tails, jelly-fishes, sea-hedgehogs, starfishes, krill and giant isopods. You may have the possibility to snorkel or dive with Fur Seals, Leopard Seals and penguins.

Number of dives
We plan at least one to two dives per day (except for days at sea), but an exact number of dives cannot be given. It all depends on ice and weather conditions.

Dive master
Our dive masters are highly experienced polar dive masters and instructors, being assisted by one or two dive guides. The main language of the dive operation will be in English.

Safety first!!
Diving in these remote Polar areas is no more dangerous than normal scuba diving as long as one important rule is adhered to: Safety First! All divers looking for dangerous stunts or wanting to make deep dives are kindly asked to stay at home!
There is no decompression chamber in Antarctica. Medical care in these Polar Regions is almost non-existent and there is hardly any infrastructure. Although we have a doctor on board the vessel for first aid assistance, we cannot accept risky ventures from any of our divers.

Diving procedure
The voyage will start with a check-dive so all divers can get used to the cold water and try out their equipment and the number of weights they need. Before each dive, there will be a briefing about the location of the site, the weather and ice conditions and the procedure of the dive.
You don't need to store your dive gear in your cabin. Upon arrival our dive staff will show you where you can leave your dive equipment. Only take your regulator with you in your cabin. Every diver is expected to prepare his own equipment well in advance prior to each dive. Bring your own spare parts for your regulators and dry suit in case of leakage or damage.
The divers are expected to set up and carry their own equipment in and out of the zodiac and sometimes up and down the gangway.

The dives will be done on a 'buddy system' basis. The dive guide will not be in the water to accompany and lead the divers. The guides will stay on the surface for the divers' safety. The divers are expected to be experienced enough to read their compass, depth gauges and look after each other in order to have a safe dive.

What to pack for your Diving

Please contact your airline about their luggage restrictions and request a special allowance for your dive equipment prior to departure. All excess baggage is at your own expense.

¢ Dry suit with hood
¢ Thick and warm underwater garment (2 sets), dry gloves or adequate thick wet gloves (make sure they will keep your hands warm in sub-zero waters)
¢ Freeze protected regulator
¢ 2 separate regulators, because we dive with special bottles with two separate outlets. The tanks we are using are 10L steel tanks. They are fitted with a “Y” or “H” valve configuration, with DIN or Yoke (INT) adaptable connections.
¢ Pressure gage
¢ Stabilizing jacket or some kind of BC with quick release - divers without BCD trusting only their dry suit for buoyancy control will not be allowed to dive.
¢ Depth gage, watch or computer
¢ Compass
¢ Knife and a torch
¢ Mask, fins and snorkel
¢ Weight belt (weights available on board)

Please note that the snorkel is a vital part of the safety equipment and will often be used when snorkeling with seals and such.

IMPORTANT: Do not bring any new equipment on this expedition that you have not already tested in the water and you are not very familiar with. The Polar Regions are not the place to test out new equipment.
It is required that you complete a few dives with all the equipment you will be using before coming on the trip. This will also allow you to fine-tune your buoyancy and trim characteristics, and make a note of how much weight you will need when diving with all your equipment.

Equipment on board
On board we have a Bauer compressor (200 litres), 35 steel bottles of 12 litres each, 200 bar, with DIN and Yoke adaptable connections and two separate outlets. This will allow for the attachment of a primary and a secondary backup regulator, which allows for either regulator to be independently isolated if there is a malfunction or a free flow.

You will be provided with hard led weights and a belt. There are no ankle weights available. We do not have any rentals on board. Please make sure you check out all your dive gear before leaving. Bins are available for storage.

Setting up your gear
You need two sets of regulators:

1st set includes: Freeze protected First stage
Second stage (incl. hose)
Hose for BC
Pressure gage / computer

2nd set includes: Freeze protected First stage
Second stage (incl. hose)
Hose for Dry suit

Ice and weather
Please note that the itinerary in the Arctic, Antarctica, Falklands (Malvinas) and South Georgia is always weather and ice permitting. It is always possible that because of the pack ice and drift ice, we have to change our sailing schedule. It is possible that certain bays or fjords are closed because of ice. In such a case, we have to re-route our voyage. Possible alterations that relate to weather and ice conditions can never be a reason for claims, reimbursements or whatsoever. When changing the itinerary, we can assure you that the captain, expedition leader and dive master will do their utmost to provide an alternative program, along the same lines as the originally planned cruise itinerary.

Diving expedition
These diving voyages are true expeditions. Although we know the destinations in detail, each dive will be a surprising event. Please note, that ice is not static but always in movement.

This means, that the actual situation (colours, marine wildlife) under the surface, always depends on the conditions and formations of the ice. Not achieved personal expectations in reference to the diving cannot be grounds for claims, reimbursements or whatsoever. However, our experienced dive master will do his utmost to offer the best dive sites in the Arctic, Antarctica, Falkland Islands (Malvinas) and South Georgia.


Diving is an equipment intensive activity. Ice diving requires an extensive amount of additional equipment because of the cold weather and water, and the remote location involved. Diving is not fun if you are cold. Divers in cold water may have a higher air consumption rate, expend more energy, and can become more fatigued. Cold water also decreases a diver's ability to perform complex tasks that require manual dexterity.

Staying Warm

Dry Suit
The only adequate protection from thermal exposure in the Arctic and Antarctica where the water will be as cold as - 1ºC/30ºF is a dry suit. The type of dry suit you use is not important so long as it fits you, is waterproof and you are comfortable using it. Neoprene dry suits have the benefit of having good stretch and extra insulation. Shell suits provide no extra insulation but are lighter and dry more quickly. Shell suits serve only to keep the diver dry and require extra layers of garments to be worn under the suit. If appropriate, bring a small dry suit repair kit.

Insulating Undergarments
The function of the undergarments is to trap air against your body to be warmed. The colder the water, the more (or thicker) layers of undergarments are required. It is recommended that you wear two or three layers, depending on your suit. As the first layer you should wear a set of polypropylene liners. This type of material helps wick any moisture away from the body. As the second layer you should wear thick insulating material, such as fleece, synthetic pile, thinsulate or similar. As the final and outer layer you may wish to wear a windproof shell. The one piece jump suit style is the most common and comfortable configuration of dive wear and is available in a variety of thickness depending on your dry suit and the water temperature.

Dry Suit Accessories
If a hood is not attached to your dry suit you will need to bring one. A 7 mm neoprene hood with face and neck seal is recommended. Regular 7 mm neoprene semidry gloves or mitts may be used with any dry suit and are relatively easy to use. Three finger mitts are warmer than five-finger gloves. Special dry gloves that deal against rings on the arm of the dry suit are available in the market. To prevent glove squeeze, and to promote warmth, short pieces of surgical tubing, or straws can be inserted under the wrist seals to provide a conduit for air to exchange from the suit to the gloves. This type of glove requires additional practice to use, as they can come off your hand if not used correctly.

Post-dive wear
It is important to bring a warm hat and some warm wind and waterproof gloves to wear before, and especially after the dive. You may also wish to bring wind and waterproof spray jacket and pants to keep the cold wind off your wet dry suit.

Diving Equipment

Normal regulators will not function in sub-freezing water as both the first and second stage will freeze. You are required to bring two sets of regulators (1st & 2nd stage), suitable for cold-water/ice diving. Some regulators can be fitted with an environmental seal kit, others come environmentally sealed from the manufacturer.

To avoid regulator malfunction, regulators must be cared for properly before, during and after diving. Regulators should be kept dry and warm before the dive; store them in your cabin. Avoid breathing from the regulator before submersion, except to briefly ensure it is functioning, but when doing so; exhale after removing the regulator from your mouth so as to avoid freezing the second stage with moisture from the exhaled breath.

If during the dive your primary regulator freezes up and causes a free flow, you should switch to you back-up regulator, and turn off the valve to the primary regulator to stop the free flow.

Tips on keeping water out of your regulator:
o Always open the cylinder valve briefly before mounting the regulator, to blow out any moisture from the orifice.
o When purging the regulator for removal, hold the second stage lower than the first stage so that water cannot drip back to the first stage after pressure has dropped.
o Remove the regulator carefully, so as not to allow ice or water to fall into the filter of the regulator.
o Dry the dust cap thoroughly before attaching it to the regulator.
o The dust cap must fit snugly before rinsing the regulator.
o Do not press the purge button while rinsing the regulator.
o Shake excess water from the second stage before hanging the regulator to dry.

Face Mask
The type of mask you are using is not critical, we recommend using a standard mask and regulator. You may use a full-face mask if you prefer, but keep an extra facemask handy in case your regulator free flows. It is best to avoid spitting into the mask for defogging, as this can freeze onto the inside of the mask. Commercial defogging agents work well for ice diving. Straps can also become brittle in cold weather, and it is highly recommended that you bring a spare strap and a spare mask.

Instruments, Gauges and Computers
You must have one tank pressure indicator for each regulator set-up. Some electronic instruments will not function well in sub-freezing temperatures. Liquid crystal displays may be slow to display and batteries will also run low sooner.


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